## LaTeX HELP

The information given below is adapted from the American Physics Society web site (by Prof. Terry A. Miller and Dr. Sergey I. Panov, from whom we have stolen it!). It contains the information needed to produce many, if not most, of the special symbols used in spectroscopy; however, it is by no means all inclusive.

## Commands for Selected Special Symbols

Greek letters and most mathematical symbols must be identified descriptively in an electronic submission. Here is a list of some of the most commonly used symbols. These commands must all be given in 's "math" mode, i.e., between dollar signs ($); see the user manual for additional information about math mode. #### Greek letters: To obtain a Greek letter in your abstract, type a backslash (\) followed by the name of the letter. Lower-case Greek letters. Note omicron is simply lower-case "o".  α: \alpha η: \eta ν: \nu τ: \tau β: \beta θ: \theta ξ: \xi υ: \upsilon γ: \gamma ι: \iota ο: o φ: \phi δ: \delta κ: \kappa π: \pi χ: \chi ε: \epsilon λ: \lambda ρ: \rho ψ: \psi ζ: \zeta μ: \mu σ: \sigma ω: \omega  Upper-case Greek letters.  Γ: \Gamma Λ: \Lambda Σ: \Sigma Ψ: \Psi Δ: \Delta Ξ: \Xi Υ: \Upsilon Ω: \Omega Θ: \Theta Π: \Pi Φ: \Phi  #### Characters from national alphabets: Special characters in German, French, Scandinavian languages, Slavonic languages,... are represented by \-constructions. Examples are:  ä : \"a ü : \"u ö : \"o Ä : \"A Ü : \"U Ö : \"O ß : {\ss}  In general, to put an umlaut above a letter, put \" in front of the letter.  é : \´e è : \e ô : \^o ç : {\c c}  In general, to put an accent aigu above a letter, write \´ in front of it. To put an accent grave above a letter, write \ in front of it. To put a circonflexe above a letter, write \^ in front of it. To put a cedille underneath a letter, write \c in front of it as shown.  æ : {\ae} ø : {\o} å : {\aa} Æ : {\AE} Ø : {\O} Å : {\AA}  In general, to put a haček above a letter, write \v in front of it.  Š : {\v S} š : {\v s} Č : {\v C} ž : {\v z} Ř : {\v R} ĕ : {\v e}  At least to a non-Slavonic person, a čarka is the same as a French accent aigu, and so you can make them as described above. #### Superscripts and Subscripts Superscripts are indicated by a caret (shift-6): ^{SCRIPT}, e.g.,$\pi r^{2}$. The example shown here is the formula for the area of a circle, πr2. math mode (necessary for equations and super- and subscripts) is specified with the dollar signs; the lower case π (\pi) and radius variable r have a space between them in the markup (it would not appear in the output), and the superscript 2 is the "argument" (enclosed in curly braces) to the superscript operator ^. Subscripts are indicated by an underscore: _{SCRIPT}, e.g.,$J_{12}$is J12. The abbreviation for Ångströms (Å) is \AA. Circular degrees can be specified with \deg, e.g.,$45\deg$is 45°. We have also defined three special commands for symbols often encountered in conference abstracts. COMMAND USE LATEX FORMULATION \wn wavenumbers \newcommand{\wn}{\ensuremath{\mathrm{cm}^{-1}}} \nub{} vibrational level \newcommand{\nub}[1]{\ensuremath{\nu_{#1}}} \chem{} chemical formula \newcommand{\chem}[1]{}\ensuremath{mathrm{#1}}  Use as follows: INSERT SPECTROSCOPIC NOTATION FOR 19800\wn 19800 cm-1 \nub{1} and \nub{3} levels ν1 and ν3 levels \chem{CH-4} CH4  Complete charts of symbols and markup names available in are given at the end of the Command Summary, which can be retrieved via anonymous FTP from ftp.shsu.edu or from nic.funet.fi. The Command Summary must be processed with and printed in order to be useful. ## Problems To Be Aware Of, So That You Can Avoid Them For the most part, automatic abstract processing is very successful. However, here is a list of some of the problems that sometimes occur, but can be easily avoided.  1. Word processors cause the largest share of troubles. If you use Word, WordPerfect, or another word processor, please be sure to save the file as an ASCII file (plain text, DOS text, etc.) 2. Some punctuation marks are special characters to , and you must put a backslash (\) in front of them so the proper mark is placed in the text. You should specify them like so: \& \$       \{     \}
\%       \#       \_

3. Make sure you use only upper case in the title and author
names, except for special cases, e.g., He, Al, McDONALD, the
conjunction "and" before the the last author in a series,
etc. Your abstract will be checked and automatically rejected
for failure to observe this convention.

4. Be careful not to add extra "{" or "}".  Keep them in pairs.

5. Please note that some lines in the template are not to be removed,
edited, commented out, or otherwise trifled with. Please

  praha.sty            Download praha.sty file